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Year 11 - Industrial Uses of Chemicals

Aluminium Saucepans. Cooking foil and food containers. In alloys for making aircraft. Electric cables (steel core).
Ammonia Manufacture of HNO3 and ammonium salts.
Ammonium salts :
chloride batteries
nitrate explosive/fertiliser
sulphate fertilizer
Argon In lamps
Calcium carbonate Manufacture of iron. Manufacture of cement.
Calcium hydroxide Neutralizing acid soils and wastes. In buildings (mortar).
Ceramics Electrical insulator,
Chlorine As a bleach, for cotton and paper. In making PVC.
Copper Electric cables. Water pipes. Cooking utensils.
Ethanol Making Esters. As a solvent. In cosmetics. Fuel.
Helium In balloons.
Hydrogen Hydrogenation of oils (to fats). Making tungsten. Fuel.
Iron In making steel. As a catalyst in the Haber process.
Nitric acid Making explosives. Fertilizers.
Nitrogen in annealing steel. Inert atmosphere (food). Refrigeration.
Oil fractions :
petrol fuel for cars
paraffin (kerosene) stoves; aircraft fuel
diesel engines
lubricating oils lubricants, waxes, polishes
bitumen making roads.
Oxygen Steel production, Oxy-ethyne (acetylene) cutting and welding, Medical.
Polymers (general) Electrical insulators.
Silver compounds Photography.
Sodium As a coolant for nuclear reactors, as a reagent in the organic chemicals industry, making titanium.
Sodium hydroxide Making soap, in paper manufacture.
Steel (mild) Car bodies, machinery.
Steel (stainless) Large-scale chemical reaction vessels, cutlery.
Sulphur Burnt to give S02 for H2S04, making rubbers.
Sulphur dioxide H2S04 manufacture, as a mild bleach, preserving food.
Sulphuric acid Fertilizers (phosphate, ammonium sulphate ), detergents, paint manufacture.
Water Drinking, cleaning.
Zinc Galvanising of iron, making brass.
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written by Dr Richard Clarkson : © Saturday, 1 November 1997

updated : Tuesday, 29th July, 2008

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